Understand Normal Blood Sugar Levels According to Age!

Normal blood sugar levels are important to keep from getting too high or too low. Because blood sugar levels in the body have an important role for health. It is undeniable, both high and too low sugar levels can interfere with body health.

Diabetes itself is one of the most wary diseases. High blood sugar levels are often a major marker of diabetes. Doctors also often use blood sugar charts to set goals and monitor diabetes treatment plans.

So what exactly is blood sugar and what is the normal value for blood sugar in the body? Check out the admin review below, for more details.

What is blood sugar and its function

Blood sugar is a term that refers to the level or amount of sugar in the blood circulation in the body. Blood sugar levels in the body generally exist in several forms. The sugar in the blood is known as glucose, which is the simplest form of sugar.

Apart from glucose, there is a sugar known as glycogen. Glycogen itself is a sugar in a more complex form commonly found in the liver and muscles whose function is as a food reserve.

The main source of human blood sugar levels comes from food. In foods, sugar is the result of the digestive process of carbohydrates which are found in rice, bread, potatoes, and tubers. Another source of sugar is from within the body. In conditions of prolonged fasting, sugar is produced by the liver.

The main function of sugar in the body is to produce energy. If the body is like a car, then blood sugar is the fuel. Sugar that comes from food will enter the bloodstream. Then the sugars will enter the muscles.

In the muscles and all body cells, sugar will be converted into energy. It is this energy that ensures the survival of cells, generates body heat, produces body movement, and so on. There are several blood sugar disorders that are the most famous, one of which is diabetes or known as diabetes.

Blood sugar levels do not just exist in the muscles and cells of our bodies. Required a substance that serves as an introduction to the entrance of sugar into the muscles and cells of the body. This substance is insulin. In people with diabetes, there is a problem with insulin which causes sugar to not get into the muscles and body cells.

As a result, sugar will remain high in the blood and on the other hand the body will feel weak because sugar cannot be used by body cells. Apart from diabetes, there are two terms that refer to abnormal blood sugar levels, namely:

1. Hyperglycemia

Namely a condition in which blood sugar levels are above normal values. Under normal conditions (not fasting), the normal limit for blood sugar is 200 mg/dL. Meanwhile, when fasting, the normal limit for blood sugar is 126 mg/dL. Above this limit value is referred to as a hyperglycemic condition.

2. Hypoglycemia

Namely a condition in which blood sugar levels are below normal values, which are below 60 mg/dL. Patients will usually feel weak, shaking, and sweating cold.

Normal Blood Sugar Levels Limit

After eating, the digestive system will certainly break down carbohydrates into sugar or glucose substances that can be absorbed by the body. Likewise in the blood, the hormone insulin produced by the pancreas will then help glucose to enter the body's cells and be used as an energy source.

In addition, excess glucose will be stored in the liver for later use. Blood sugar levels in the body can change due to several factors, such as diet, metabolism, and the side effects of certain medications. Here is the range of normal blood sugar levels in the body that is important for you to know:

  • Before meals or after fasting for at least 8 hours: 70–100 mg/dL
  • Before bedtime or 2 hours after eating: less than 140 mg/dL.
  • Check blood sugar when: less than 200 mg/dL

To find out related to normal blood sugar levels, blood sugar tests can be done at the hospital. If you want to be practical, you can buy a blood sugar test kit that can be used at home. However, if you want to monitor blood sugar levels for the last 2-3 months, then a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test is needed in the laboratory.

Routine blood sugar tests need to be done every day by diabetic patients receiving treatment. This is important to ensure that blood sugar levels are controlled and the diabetes treatment that is being undertaken is effective.

a). Signs of Lack of Blood Sugar

Maintaining normal blood sugar levels is quite important. Because blood sugar that is too low (hypoglycemia) or too high (hyperglycemia) can have a negative impact on the body.

Hypoglycemia can occur when your blood sugar is less than 70 mg/dL. This condition can cause you to experience several symptoms, such as:

  • Limp body
  • Pale skin
  • Easy to sweat
  • Body tired
  • Always hungry
  • Looking restless
  • Difficult to concentrate
  • Easy to get angry
  • Tingling in the mouth area
  • Unable to stand or walk
  • Convulsions
  • Heart beat

b). Signs of Excess Blood Sugar

Meanwhile, hyperglycemia can occur if your blood sugar level is more than 200 mg/dL. Here are some signs you have hyperglycemia:

  • Reduced body weight
  • Appetite increases
  • Fatigue
  • Easy thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Easily restless
  • Blurred vision
  • Dry, red, and hot skin
  • Frequent dental infections
  • Normal Blood Sugar Levels According to Age

The following is a complete explanation regarding the normal range of blood sugar levels at any time :

- After not eating for 8 hours (fasting blood sugar): less than 100 mg/dL

- Before meals: 70-130 mg/dL

- After meals (1-2 hours after eating): less than 180 mg/dL

- Before bed: 100-140 mg/dL

A person can be said to have high blood sugar if the blood sugar is more than 200 mg/dL, or 11 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). On the other hand, a person is said to have low blood sugar if the level drops below 70mg/dL. Experiencing one of these conditions can mean that your blood glucose level is no longer normal.

Blood sugar levels can rise and fall depending on daily physical activity, types of food consumed, side effects of drugs, stress, and others. Usually, changes in blood sugar levels from time to time are still reasonable if the numbers do not change very drastically and in a short time.

Normal blood sugar levels by age

Normal blood sugar levels in children can be different from normal blood glucose levels in adults. In children, blood glucose levels tend to be higher and volatile. This is related to the stability of certain hormones so that blood sugar levels can be more varied.

- Children less than 6 years old :

Normal blood sugar: around 100-200 mg/dL

Fasting blood sugar: approx. from 100 mg/dl

Blood sugar after eating and before bed around 200 mg/dL

- Children aged 6-12 years :

Normal blood sugar when: 70-150 mg/dL

Fasting blood sugar: about 70 mg/dL

Blood sugar after meals and before bed: can approach 150 mg/d

The limits for normal blood sugar levels for the elderly are the same as blood sugar levels in general, which is less than 100 mg/dl with the lowest level being 60–70 mg/dl.

The elderly who have diabetes but whose blood glucose is well controlled can refer to the reference numbers mentioned above (normal adults) to assess whether their blood glucose levels are within normal limits.

How to Maintain Normal Blood Sugar Levels

To avoid the effects of blood sugar being too low or too high, you also need to keep your blood sugar levels within normal limits. The following are the steps that can be taken:

1. Consumption of Healthy and Nutritious Food

The first way is to pay attention to food intake which also needs to be done to maintain this. Here are some types of nutrients that you need to get enough of along with examples of healthy foods to maintain normal blood sugar levels:

  • Carbohydrates, such as sweet potatoes, whole-grain pasta, and brown rice
  • Protein, such as skinless chicken breast, fish, and yogurt
  • Healthy fats, such as fish, avocado, and nuts
  • Fiber, such as oatmeal, nuts, fruits, and vegetables

In addition to the type of food, you also need to pay attention to the portion of the meal and the time to eat. Better, eat 3 times a day with moderate portions, and alternate with 2 nutritious snacks in between your meals.

2. Drink more water

You also need to make sure to drink more water every day as a way to maintain and lower blood sugar levels. This method can help the kidneys to get rid of excess sugar in the urine.

In one study, it was stated that drinking more water can reduce the risk of having high blood sugar levels. It also reduces the risk of developing diabetes at the same time.

3. Lose Weight

In addition to eating the right foods for diabetes, portion control is also important in maintaining blood sugar levels. Here are some ways and tips for portion control so that diabetics can maintain normal blood sugar levels.

  • Pay attention to the size and weight of the food.
  • Eat small portions, but often throughout the day.
  • Avoid eating at all-you-can-eat restaurants.
  • Pay attention to the information on the food content in the packaging, know the composition.
  • Eat slowly so that food can be digested properly by the body.

Tips to keep blood sugar levels normal through these foods do not only apply to diabetics with excess weight. Diabetics with normal weight should also keep their portions of food so it doesn't lead to obesity.

4. Do Exercise Regularly

The next way to control blood sugar levels is to exercise regularly. It turns out that exercise can help the cells in your muscles take in more glucose and turn it into energy, thereby lowering blood sugar.

If done regularly in the long term, exercise can make the body's cells more responsive to the hormone insulin, thereby preventing insulin resistance.

Take the time to do proper exercise for diabetes at least 30-60 minutes a day for 3-4 times a week. Before exercising, make sure you check your blood sugar first. Do not exercise if your blood sugar level is below 70-80 mg/dL.

Generally, exercise can be done if blood sugar levels are in the range of 160-180 mg/dL. In addition, try to stay active in your daily activities. Avoid a sedentary lifestyle (lazy) and minimal physical movement or waste energy, such as watching TV, playing games on devices, or sitting too long in front of the computer.

5. Eat less with high sugar content

As is known, diabetes must really adhere to the diet or eating pattern that is followed because food intake greatly affects blood sugar levels directly.

First, you need to avoid foods with a high glycemic index, foods high in fat and calories, and limit sources of simple carbohydrates. Also stay away from processed foods and drinks.

Eespecially those with instant processing such as fast food. Processed diabetic foods are usually high in sugar so they should be avoided in order to prevent an increase in blood sugar.

Second, apply a regular diet with balanced nutrition. This method is the key to success for controlling blood sugar in diabetics. In a sense, you still have to eat carbohydrates even though these foods produce sugar.

A safe choice of carbohydrates for diabetes is complex carbohydrates because it takes longer to break down into glucose, so blood sugar levels become more stable. Stop eating carbohydrates is not a wise decision at all, diabetics (people with diabetes) still need carbohydrates as a source of energy.

For diabetics, it is important to eat regularly. According to a study in the journal Education and Health Promotion, skipping meals for too long will actually cause blood sugar to drop and then spike quickly.

6. Avoid Things That Make Stress

Who would have thought that excessive stress can also cause blood sugar levels to increase due to the release of cortisol, the stress hormone. In addition to increasing blood sugar, stress also tends to make people with diabetes want to continue to eat more sweet (high sugar) foods.

So that stress doesn't spike your blood sugar levels, it's important that you understand how to manage stress and try various things that can improve your mood, relax your body, and calm your mind. Here are some ways that can be done, including:

  • Try taking 5 slow deep breaths.
  • Play soothing music.
  • Do some simple stretches or try some yoga poses.
  • Take time to do something you really enjoy.
  • Take time to do your favorite hobby.
  • Talk to a friend, or a medical professional if you have a complaint.

7. Ensure Adequate Rest

Another way to control blood sugar levels to stay within normal limits is to get enough rest. To a lesser extent, constant lack of sleep affects the quality of your life and interferes with insulin secretion (release). Ideally, good sleep ranges from 7-9 hours every night.

Adequate sleep can balance hormones, avoid stress, and make you get enough energy to move and exercise the next day. Thus, blood sugar levels can be controlled properly.

8. Check Blood Sugar Regularly

Measuring and monitoring blood glucose levels using a blood sugar meter is also an effective way of controlling blood sugar. Regularly checking your blood sugar can help you figure out how your body reacts to certain foods.

By continuously monitoring changes in blood sugar levels, it will be easier for you to determine whether to make adjustments to your diet or take medication. Therefore, try to measure your sugar levels every day and make sure that your sugar levels are always within normal limits.

Types of Test Options to Check Blood Sugar

The most widely known type 2 diabetes test is the blood sugar test. However, there are several types of blood sugar tests performed. Blood sugar tests performed can vary from one person to another. The types of checks that can be carried out include:

1. Fasting blood sugar ( GDP )

Before taking a fasting plasma glucose test, people should not eat or drink for 8 hours. Blood tests are usually taken from a finger or from a vein in the arm.

A fasting blood sugar level of 99 mg/dL or lower is normal, 100 to 125 mg/dL indicates you have prediabetes. If the test result is 126 mg/dL or higher, it means you have diabetes.

2. 2 hours postprandial blood sugar ( GD2PP )

This test requires you to fast for 8 hours and then provide a blood sample. Next, he or she will drink something containing glucose, and a healthcare professional will draw blood once an hour for a minimum of 2 hours. If your blood sugar level remains high, then this indicates that you have gestational diabetes.

3. Current blood sugar ( GDS )

Type 2 diabetes can also be detected with an intermittent blood sugar test. This examination is done to check the level of sugar in the blood at an unspecified time.

4. HbA1c

The hemoglobin A1C or HbA1c test is a simple blood test that measures the average blood sugar level over the past 3 months. When sugar enters your bloodstream, it attaches to hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells.

Everyone has some sugar attached to their hemoglobin, but people with higher blood sugar levels have more. The A1C test measures the percentage of your red blood cells that have sugar-coated hemoglobin.

A normal A1C level below 5.7%, a level of 5.7% to 6.4% indicates prediabetes. A level of 6.5% or more indicates diabetes. In the 5.7% to 6.4% prediabetes range, the higher the A1C, the greater your risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

In addition to blood tests, doctors can also perform other tests to support the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. This health disorder can also be detected through urine examination, examination of cholesterol levels in the blood, as well as liver, kidney, and thyroid function. Type 2 diabetes should by no means be taken lightly.